THIS SECTION IS A WORK IN PROGRESS. I WILL BE ADDING TO THE LIST AS THE SEMESTER CONTINUES.
A vocal or instrumental part that supports the primary part, or provides background for a soloist.
1. The science relating to the creation and dissipation of sound waves. 2. The way in which sound production is affected by the physical properties of the room or chamber in which they are produced.
The largest division of a play or opera, which can be sub-divided into scenes
The way notes are joined to one another when forming a musical line, e.g. staccato, legato, tenuto, glissando, slur, phrase mark, accents, sforzandos, rinforzandos, etc.
A vertical line (or lines) drawn across a staff (or if there are many lines, across a number of staves) to mark off measures of a particular length, i.e. containing a number of notes and/or rests whose total time value is given by the time signature
The musical era from roughly 1600 to 1750 A.D., characterized by the establishment of major and minor tonality, rather than modes, and the introduction of opera.
Lowest part; often the lowest in a family of instruments, for example, bass saxophone, bass clarinet, bass trombone, etc.
Horizontal line linking two or more notes that individually would have had flags
The regular pulse of music which may be dictated by the rise or fall of the hand or baton of the conductor, by a metronome, or by the accents in music. Related to the heartbeat; it is the unit of musical rhythm.
Beethoven, Ludwig Van:
Long stick with cup shaped-bells, ordered in pitch, suspended from it
A two-part song form consisting of an initial section, which is then followed by a contrasting section. (AB)
Body Percussion (BP):
Using the human body to produce percussive sounds. Examples of body percussion are the actions of stomping, patsching, clapping, and snapping.
Smaller and shallower than conga drums, come in pairs: one drum is slightly larger and lower in pitch than the other. The larger drum is about 7" in diameter, and the smaller is about 5". The contrast between the higher and lower pitch gives the bongos their distinctive sound. A bongo player holds the drums between his/her knees and strikes the drums with his or her hands. The bodies of the bongos are made of wood, and a small piece of wood connects the two drums. Bongos were originally created around 1900 in Cuba to be used in dance bands.
(September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) He was an American composer, philosopher, poet, music theorist, artist, print maker, and amateur mycologist and mushroom collector. A pioneer of chance music, electronic music and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde.
(from the Spanish casstano, meaning 'chestnut') a percussion instrument (idiophone) much used in Moorish music, Gypsy music, Spanish music and Latin American music. The instrument consists of a pair of concave shells joined on one edge by string. These are held in the hand and used to produce clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or rattling sound consisting of a rapid series of clicks. They are traditionally made of hardwood, although, Bakelite was and fibreglass is now popular. In practice a player usually uses two pairs of castanets. One pair is held in each hand, with the string hooked over the thumb and the castanets resting on the palm with the fingers bent over to support the other side. Each pair will make a sound of a slightly different pitch. The higher pair, known as hembra (female), is usually held in the right hand, with the larger macho (male) pair held in the left
French composer (born in Poland) and pianist who wrote music in the romantic style. (1810-1849).
A person who invents the sequence of steps and movements that make up a ballet or dance, a term that has now replaced 'ballet master', 'dancing master' and le maître à danser
Motion by half steps; or pitches used outside of the diatonic scale in which they normally occur.
Includes all twelve notes of an octave.
To strike the palms of one's hands together, repeatedly (as in an applause); a body percussive movement
(from clavija, literally 'wooden peg') a pair of round sticks, about 7" long, made of hard wood (rosewood is popular), beaten together and used in Cuban music. The larger of the two sticks is called the hembra and the smaller macho. One clave is cupped loosely in the hand and is struck with the other. The clave are used widely in Latin America, and are most popular in Cuba. The usual rhythm played on the claves is called clave
The symbol used at the beginning of a staff to indicate which lines and spaces represent which notes. In modern practice, only three clefs are commonly used, the G clef or treble clef, the F clef or bass clef, and the C clef, when used as an alto clef.In sheet music, a symbol at the beginning of the staff defining the pitch of the notes found in that particular staff.
The concluding passage of a movement or composition [Italian, from Latin cauda, tail].
A piece for soloist(s) and orchestra.A composition written for a solo instrument. The soloist plays the melody while the orchestra plays the accompaniment.in classical music, the word concerto is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore. The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the form of a piece as most concerti follow sonata form, typically found with three movements
One who directs a group of performers. The conductor indicates the tempo, phrasing, dynamics, and style by gestures and facial expressions.
A thin walled iron bell mounted on a frame, with its clapper removed, used as an orchestral percussion instrument, often to mimic the dry sound of bells worn by animals; in Latin-America, the cowbell is descended from the guataca, and includes the timbale-mounted bells (mambo, cha-cha, charanga), campana, agogo and comparsa bells. The patterns performed on these bells, when used either alone or simultaneously, make up most of the metallic percussive rhythms of Afro-Cuban popular music
Indication by the conductor or a spoke word or gesture for a performer to make an entry. Small notes that indicate another performer's part.
A pair of cymbals held by leather straps and hit together to make a loud, metalic crashing sound
In a musical the people (director, musical director and/or conductor, choreographer) who oversee and coordinate all the people involved in putting on the production.
Curwin Hand Signs: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Curwen)
Hand signs used with solfege to show musical pitches.
A form of expression using movement
In music, a sound or note of definite pitch is one of which it is possible or relatively easy to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental, as opposed to sounds of indefinite pitch.
The spoken lines of a in a play, essay, story, or novel, especially a conversation between two characters, or a literary work that takes the form of such a discussion
In its relaxed state, the diaphragm is shaped like a dome. It is critically important in respiration: in order to draw air into the lungs, the diaphragm contracts, thus enlarging the thoracic cavity and reducing intra-thoracic pressure (the external intercostals muscles also participate in this enlargement). When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity.In heavy breathing additional muscles like, the abdominal muscles are brought into play and they push diaphragm further upwards or downwards to take in or push out a greater volume of air try putting your hand on your stomach and cough. You should feel your stomach muscles tighten when you cough. This is your diaphragm working naturally.
A pair of vertical lines at the end of a section of a work
A concerto for two solo instruments, and orchestra.
A piece of music written for two vocalists or instrumentalists.
Pertaining to the loudness or softness of a musical composition. Also the symbols in sheet music indicating volume.
Excercise: A short piece written to improve performance technique.A musical composition written solely to improve technique. Often performed for artistic interest.(from the French word étude meaning 'study') is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument
Zills: Tiny metallic cymbals with a diameter of about 2 inches, they are an early Asian percussion instrument often used by female dancers in belly dancing and similar performances. Zills are commonly placed on the thumb and middle finger of one or both hands and struck together in a specific rhythmic pattern.
A symbol that lowers a given pitch by one half-step.
or 'Flex-a-tone', a percussion instrument from the 1920s comprising wooden balls on a spring attached to a flexible metal sheet, which when shaken producing a sound similar to a musical saw as the balls strike the metal sheet. Thumb pressure is used to control pitch, which is distinct but generally in motion (and accompanied by rattling from the balls). The instrument's range is approximately E5 to A6
A vibration of the tongue, as if rolling the syllable rrrr
songs and dances transmitted orally through several generations before being recorded or notated. Folk music is somewhat synonymous with traditional music. Both terms are used semi-interchangeably amongst the general population; however, some musical communities that actively play living folkloric musics have adopted the term traditional music as a means of distinguishing their music from the popular music called "folk music", especially the post-1960s "singer-songwriter" genre
The arrangement of sections in a song to contrast similiar and different sections. Often, letters are used to represent different parts of a given selection: ABA, AABA, ABACA, etc.
A symbol indicating to play loud.
A clef that indicates which line represents G on a staff, as opposed to a C clef, or an F clef.
A short, improvisational-sounding piece.a free-form musical composition with the character of an improvisation, usually for a solo instrument, such as piano
Spontanious Composition. The performance of music that is composed on the spur-of-the moment by the performer, usually as a solo, or cadenza. Also used extensively in jazz.
Short music used to bridge the acts of a play, or the verses of a hymn.
The opening section of a piece of music or movement.
"Master of the chapel." Director of music for a church or royalty.
Lerner and Lowe:
The words to a song.
A pattern or sequence of notes that define a specific tonality that often gives off an expression of happiness or positive affirming character.One of the two modes of the tonal system. Music written in major keys have a positive affirming character.
A diatonic scale where the half-steps fall between the third and fourth, and the seventh and . This scale is identical to the Ionian Mode.
The unit of measure where the beats on the lines of the staff are divided up into two, three, four beats to a measure.
A rhythmically organized sequence of single tones of varying pitches so related to one another as to make up a memorable, particular phrase or idea.
Menotti, Gian Carlo:
One of the two modes of the tonal system. The minor mode can be identified by the dark, melancholic mood.
Slow and stately dance music written in triple time.
A self-contained segment of a larger work. Found in works such as sonatas, symphonies, concertos, etc.
The structure of a piece of music.
A musical composition that suggests some aspect of the night and is usually solemn and contemplative. A night-piece, or seranade. Originally a salon piano work, as in examples by John Field and Chopin, with nighttime associations.A musical composition that has a romantic or dreamy character with nocturnal associations.
A musical play, usually entirely sung, making use of costumes, staging, props, sets, and dramatic elements. Operas usually consist of two types of musical elements, the aria, which primarily expresses a single idea or theme, and the recitative which advances the story.A drama where the words are sung instead of spoken.
A term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer's other compositions."Work". With a number, used to show the order in which the works by a given composer were written or published. Opus numbers are most often used for composers who catalogued their own works.
A large group of instrumentalists playing together.
The introductory music for an opera, ballet, or oratorio.Introduction to an opera or other large musical work.
Patting either the left, right, or both thighs with hands.
Pentatonic Scale: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pentatonic_scale)
An ancient musical scale containing five pitches creating both the major and minor tonalities. The 5 black keys of the keyboard are also pentatonic scale notes.
Instruments that are sounded by striking, shaking, plucking, or scraping.
An instruction in sheet music to play softly. Abbreviated by a “p”.
A modern keyboard instrument that produces sounds by hammers striking strings. These hammers are activated by keys, depressed by the performer's fingers.
"Piggy Back" Songs:
The idea of taking a tune from a very familiar song and changing the lyrics to to fit a specific purpose. This technique is often used to help teach and/or memorize important facts.
The frequency of a note determining how high or low it sounds.
A short composition for piano. "Play-before". An introductory movement or work.Since Chopin, the term often denotated a short piano piece, not necessarily an introduction, for example, one might play 24 successive preludes. In Baroque music, the prelude was often paired with the fugue
A piano that has had its sound altered by placing objects (preparations) between or on the strings or on the hammers or dampers. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kc3-C7Lnzh0&feature=related
A note played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note.
Quarter Note Rest:
A silence of the same duration as a quarter note.
A wind instrument of the Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Baroque eras. The recorder is a simple instrument related to the flute; it is sounded by blowing into one end and the pitch is adjusted by covering finger holes.
A 'double bar' (a pair of vertical lines; one thin and one thick) which is preceded by a pair of vertical dots, called repeat dots, indicating that the section should be played twice, that is, should be repeated
To repeat a previous part of a composition generally after other music has been played.
Reinforcement and intensification of sound by vibrations
A symbol used to denote silence.
The timing of musical sounds and silences.The term which denotes the organization of sound in time. The element of music pertaining to time, played as a grouping of notes into accented and unaccented beats.
A period in history during the 18th and early 19th centuries where the focus shifted from the neoclassical style to an emotional, expressive, and imaginative style.
A musical form where the principal theme is repeated several times. The rondo was often used for the final movements of classical sonata form works.In rondo form, a principal theme (sometimes called the 'refrain') alternates with one or more contrasting themes, variously called 'digressions', 'couplets', 'episodes', or 'subordinate themes'. The overall form can be represented as ABACADA.... The number of themes can vary from piece to piece, and the recurring element is sometimes embellished or shortened in order to provide for variation
A series of notes which define a diatonic tonality, often consisting of eight degrees, and containing a tonic and sometimes also a leading tone.Successive notes of a key or mode either ascending or descending.
A symbol that raises a given pitch by one half-step.
Shaw, George Bernard:
Skips on the recorder:
The syllables: Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, and their association with specific pitches.
Sousa, John Phillip:
Short detached notes, as opposed to legato.
Made up of five horizontal parallel lines and the spaces between them on which musical notation is written.
Steps on the Recorder:
A group of 4 instruments, two violins, a viola, and cello.
Technicians (in a musical):
In a musical, the people involved in the production who are responsible for the costuming, lighting, staging, audio, and make-up/hair.
Speed of the music. It is an Italian term (can be related to the Spanish: "tiempo").Indicating speed.
The numbers written on staff of any piece, indicating which type of note gets a single beat, and also how many beats are in each measure.
The intonation, pitch, and modulation of a composition expressing the meaning, feeling, or attitude of the music.
The playing or singing the upper half of the vocal range.
The G clef falling on the second line of the staff.
A rhythmic succession of musical tones, a melody for instruments and voices.
when something oscillates about a static position it can be said to vibrate.Musical instruments are generators of vibrations, whether those be of a string, a column or air or of a sounding body, hollow or solid. The human ear is sensitive to vibrations in the range 16 Hz. to several thousand Hz., where 1 Hz. is a unit of frequency equal to 1 cycle per second. On the piano, the lowest A has a frequency of 27.5 Hz., while the highest C vibrates as 4,224 Hz.
also called 'vibes' or 'vibraharp', a marimba with metal bars and tuned resonators that are fitted with caps that electrically open and close to produced a pulsed vibrato-like sound. It is played with soft beaters and its range is F3 to F6 (notated at pitch). Many vibraphones have a damper pedal that stops or starts the sound
Vibrasnap or Vibraslap:
a percussion instrument designed to imitate the sound of a donkey jawbone or quijada. It is formed of a sprung steel rod, bent into shape, with an open wedge-shaped wooden box on one end and a wooden ball on the other. The box contains a number of loosely fastened rivets in the centre, and when the player strikes the wooden ball or the box itself, the rivets vibrate to produce a sound similar to that of the 'jawbone'
the period of British literature in the late nineteenth century. The date of the period is often given as 1837-1901, the years Queen Victoria ruled the expanding British Empire
Victoria, Queen of England:
In the violin family, the treble instrument played under the chin. It is a bowed string instrument which has 4 strings and plays high ranges of sounds.
An extremely popular ballroom dance of the 19th century in triple meter, where the accent falls on the first beat of each measure.